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藏獒AKC之路

发布时间:2015-09-24  来源:藏獒之家  浏览次数:732  
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藏獒AKC之路 今天在AKC官网上无意看到了藏獒于07.1.1正式并入AKC的工作犬组并可以参加各类比赛的消息,于是在网络上收集了一些关于藏獒在AKC的资料,与爱宠人一同分享。With the Tibetan Mastiffs going into the Working Group on January 1, this was one of the first shows to see this new AKC breed in the Working Group ring.
随着藏獒于07.1.1进入工作犬组,这是第一次看到这一AKC工作犬组的新品种参加犬展(指前文提到的于07年1月6号至7号在Indio, California举办的犬展)。 藏獒于05年1月1号进入AKC的 Miscellaneous Class(混合犬组),即未加入编组的认可品种,也可以理解为候补犬组。
TIBETAN MASTIFF TO ENTER MISCELLANEOUS CLASS JANUARY 2005 -- Six Additional Breeds To Be Recorded by AKC Foundation Stock Service -- New York, NY – As of January 1, 2005 the Tibetan Mastiff will be eligible to compete in the Miscellaneous Class at AKC events.
六个附加犬种被AKC 基础档案服务部门(意译)记录在案。 从2005.1.1起,藏獒有资格参加AKC举办的混合犬组比赛。 但是进入Miscellaneous Class仅代表品种被AKC承认了,只有获得正式编组才能算是后的成功。如普洛特猎犬(ploot),98即进入混合犬组,直至07.1.1才被允许进入狩猎犬组。 在05年藏獒进入AKC混合犬组之后,AKC就颁布了藏獒的AKC标准,此标准与国人所认定的藏獒标准有较大出入。
Tibetan Mastiff Miscellaneous Class General Appearance Noble and impressive: a large, powerful, heavy, well built dog, well muscled, with much substance and bone, and of solemn but kindly appearance. The Tibetan Mastiff stands well up on the pasterns, with strong, tight, cat feet, giving an alert appearance. The body is slightly longer than tall. The head is broad and impressive, with massive back skull, the eyes deep-set and almond shaped, slightly slanted, the muzzle broad and well-padded, giving a square appearance. The typical expression of the breed is one of watchfulness. The tail is well feathered and carried over the back in a single curl falling over the loin, balancing the head. The coat and heavy mane is thick, with coarse guard hair and a wooly undercoat. The tail and britches are well feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff has been used primarily as a family and property guardian for many millennia, and is aloof and watchful of strangers, and highly protective of its people and property.
藏獒 预备犬组 整体外观 尊贵威猛。藏獒体型巨大,身体长度稍长于高度,强壮有力,骨骼肌肉发育良好,威严肃穆,表情冷静,头面宽阔,头骨宽大,眼炯炯有神,呈杏仁状,稍斜。肌肉宽大且伸展,形成一种立体感。它的尾巴很有特色,尾位与背部齐平并自然卷起附于背部,而下垂时会覆盖生殖器;与头部保持平衡。被毛和鬃毛很厚,尤其是颈部的鬃毛像一条厚围巾缠在颈部。 本犬种的典型特色是警觉性高,主要用于家庭和财产的守卫,对陌生人有强烈的敌意和杀伤力,绝对忠诚地保护它的主人和财产。
Size, Proportion, Substance Size: Dogs - minimum of 26 inches at the withers. Bitches - minimum of 24 inches at the withers. Dogs that are more than one inch below the minimum heights to be severely faulted. Proportion: Slightly longer than tall (9-10), (i.e.,the height to length, measured from sternum to ischium should be slightly greater than the distance from withers to ground). Substance: The Tibetan Mastiff should have impressive substance, both in bone and structure, as well as strength. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion and movement, the more substantial dog, in terms of substance and bone, not merely height, is to be given preference. Head Broad, heavy and strong. Some wrinkling in maturity, extending from above eyes down to corner of mouth. A correct head and expression is essential to the breed. Expression: Noble, intelligent, watchful and aloof. Eyes: Very expressive, medium size, any shade of brown. Rims to be black except in blue/grey, blue/grey and tan dogs and brown dogs, the darkest possible shade of grey or brown. Eyes deep-set, well apart, almondshaped, and slightly slanting. Any other color or shape to be severely faulted since it detracts from the typical expression. Ears: Medium size, V-shaped, pendant, set-on high , dropping forward and hanging close to head. Raised when alert, on level with the top of the skull. The ear leather is thick, covered with soft short hair, and when measured, should reach the inner corner of the eye. Skull: Broad and large, with strongly defined occiput. Broad back skull. Stop: Deep and well defined. Muzzle: Broad, well filled and square when viewed from all sides. Proportions: Measurement from occiput to stop and stop to end of nose, equal or slightly shorter. Nose: Broad, well pigmented, with open nostrils. Black, except with blue/grey or blue/grey and tan dogs, the darkest shade of grey and brown dogs, the darkest shade of brown. Any other color to be severely faulted. Lips: Well developed, thick, with moderate flews and slightly pendulous lower lips. Bite: Complete scissor bite. Level bite acceptable. Essential that dentition fits tightly, to maintain square form of muzzle. Teeth: Canine teeth large, strong, broken teeth not to be faulted. Faults: Missing teeth, overshot, undershot bite.
大小、比例、特质 大小:公犬肩高最低26英寸,母犬肩高最低24英寸。公犬和母犬再矮也不得低于各自的最低高度1英寸。 比例:身长稍长于高度,(长:高=10:9)如高比长,从胸骨到坐骨,应稍大于肩胛到地面的距离。 特质:藏獒有给人深刻印象的特质。骨骼和身体都很健壮。比其他同等大小和比例的犬都要优秀,不仅仅在高度上,就连其他特质上,藏獒都是最优秀的犬。 头部 头面宽阔,头骨宽大,成狗有皱褶,从眼睛上端一直延伸到嘴角,对本犬种来说正确的头部特征和脸像对它的繁殖是非常重要的。 表情:尊贵、机智、警觉、孤傲。 眼睛:中等大小,眼睛深邃,自然分开呈杏仁状,稍斜,黑中闪着亮光,非常有神。 耳朵:中等大小,V字型,自然下垂,紧贴面部*前,警觉时自然提起,耳部覆盖着短且柔软的绒毛。 面部:头面宽阔,头骨宽大,鼻梁坚挺。 额段:深且明显。 脸部肌肉:宽且大,从各种角度来看都非常的充实和立体。 比例:从枕骨到头断和头断到鼻尖的比例基本相等。 鼻子:宽且大,鼻内侧外翻。 嘴唇:突出,厚实,上唇两侧适度下垂。 咬合:呈剪刀式咬合,水平咬合也可以接受。牙齿的紧密是必须的。如此才能保持肌肉的平整。 牙齿:长,健壮,后天遭破损的牙齿,不视为缺点。 缺陷:缺齿,上颚或下颚突出的,或下前牙突出的。
Neck, Topline and Body Neck: The neck is well muscled, moderately arched, and may have moderate dewlap. The neck, especially in dogs, is shrouded by a thick upstanding mane. Topline: Topline straight and level between withers and croup. Body: The chest is rather deep, of moderate breadth, with reasonable spring of rib. Brisket reaching to just below elbows. Underline with pronounced (but not exaggerated) tuck-up. The back is muscular with firmly muscled loin. There is no slope or angle to the croup. Tail: Medium to long, but not reaching below hock joint; well feathered. Set high on line with top of back. When alert or in motion, curled over back or to one side. Tails that are double curled or carried in an incomplete curl to be faulted. Forequarters Shoulders: Well laid back, muscular, strongly boned, with moderate angulation to match the rear angulation. Legs: Straight, with substantial bone and muscle, well covered with short, coarse hair, feathering, and with strong pasterns that have a slight slope. Feet: Cat feet. Fairly large, strong, compact, may have feathering between toes. Nails may be either black and/or white, regardless of coat color. A single dewclaw may be present on the front feet.
颈、背、躯干 颈:颈部肌肉丰满,呈拱形。头部下方有垂皮。特别是公犬,头部围绕着厚厚的直立的鬃毛。 背:背线直,脊背到尾骨是水平的。 躯干:粗壮,背部挺直宽阔,肌肉发达,柔韧性好,整体有稍微下蹲的感觉。胸深,并低于上肘部,躯干长度略大于高度。 尾巴:中等长度,长度不能超过踝关节,和背部呈一条直线,自然卷起。当警觉时,尾巴翘起,或朝向任何一边。尾巴双卷,或完全卷起而不能自然放松的是尾缺陷。 前驱 肩:双肩平顺,骨干的肌肉发达。 前腿:直立,骨骼肌肉粗大,覆有短的粗毛。直立时会有轻微的倾斜。 前足:猫足,相当大,健壮结实,趾与趾之间有毛。指甲可能是黑色或白色。单个的悬趾可能出现在前足。
Hindquarters Hindquarters: Powerful, muscular, with all parts being moderately angulated. Seen from behind, the hind legs and stifle are parallel. The hocks are strong, well let down (approximately one-third the overall length of the leg), and perpendicular. Feet: A single or double dewclaw may be present on the rear feet. Removal of rear dewclaws, if present, optional. Coat In general, dogs carry noticeably more coat than *****es. The quality of the coat is of greater importance than quantity. Double-coated, with fairly long, thick coarse guard hair, with heavy soft undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Hair is fine but hard, straight and stand-off; never silky, curly or wavy. Heavy undercoat, when present, rather woolly. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, especially in dogs, giving mane-like appearance. Tail and britches densely coated and heavily feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet. Dogs are not to be penalized if shown with a summer coat.
后躯 后躯:强壮有力,肌肉发达,所有部分都有棱角。从后面看,后腿和膝盖是平行的。跗关节强壮,自然下垂(大约是腿长的1/3)与足垂直。 足:一个或是两个的悬趾(狼爪)可能会出现在后足上,可选择于出生后切除。 被毛 总的来说,公犬的皮毛看起来比母犬厚。被毛的质量比数量更重要,双层的被毛相当浓密,丰厚的颈部鬃毛及原来柔软的内层绒毛将会在夏天变得稀疏。毛发浓密坚韧直立,丰厚的下层皮毛显得特别的粗犷。颈部和肩部有更长更粗的毛,特别是显示在公犬身上。藏獒的外貌是自然的,无谓的修饰是不被接受的。当然,悬趾的切除,又另当别论。
Color Black, brown, and blue/grey, all with or without tan markings, and various shades of gold. Tan ranges from a very rich shade through a lighter color. White markings on breast and feet acceptable. Tan markings may appear at any or all of the following areas: above eyes as spots, around eyes (including spectacle markings), on each side of the muzzle, on throat, on lower part of front forelegs and extending up the inside of the forelegs, on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the front of the rear legs from hock to toes, on breeches, and underside of tail. Undercoat, as well as furnishings on breeches and underside of tail, may be lighter shades of the dominant color. The undercoat on black and tan dogs also may be grey or tan. Other markings such as sabling, brindling, white on other areas of the body, or large white markings, to be faulted. All other coat colors, while accepted, are to be faulted. Gait The gait of a Tibetan Mastiff is powerful, steady and balanced, yet at the same time, light-footed. When viewed from the side, reach and drive should indicate maximum use of the dogs moderate angulation. Back remains level and firm. Sound and powerful movement more important than speed. Temperament The Tibetan Mastiff is a highly intelligent, independent, strong willed and rather reserved dog. He is aloof with strangers and highly protective of his charges and his property. In the ring he may exhibit reserve or lack of enthusiasm, but any sign of shyness is unacceptable and must be severely faulted as inappropriate for a guardian breed. Conversely, given its aloof nature, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness. Approved: November 8, 2004 Effective: January 1, 2005
颜色 栗色、褐色、蓝/灰色,所有的颜色都可能有或没有棕色或金黄色的饰斑,而饰斑的颜色深浅不一。足部有白毛出现是可以接受的。饰斑可能在下列部位出现:眼睛上方的圆点,或可能围绕在眼周围,脸的内侧,咽喉,前腿下部分和前腿内侧的延伸部分,后腿的内侧,后腿膝关节的前方和腿前宽阔的地方,后跗关节到脚趾,臀部和尾巴的下端。臀部和尾巴下端的毛可能比其他部位的颜色稍浅。内层绒毛在黑色或棕色的公犬身上可能是棕色或灰色,如果黑色、褐色、白色出现在身体的其他部位,或是身上出现大块的白斑,视为缺点。另外,除上述颜色以外的其他颜色,也可以接受,但也视为缺点。 步态 藏獒的步伐是轻盈而有弹性的,自然而有力。从侧面看启动和停止都出现最有力,最伸展的动态,而运动时发出的声音和有力感比速度更加重要。 习性 藏獒非常机敏,独立,自主意识和领域意识强。远离陌生人,对自己的领域和财产高度的保护。在展示会上会显得保留或比较温柔,但是作为一种护卫犬种,任何胆怯的表现都不被接受,而且是一种严重的缺陷。当然,任何的事物实地去观察要比阅读资料更为重要,更为清楚。 2004年11月8日批准 2005年1月生效 其中,与国人观念出入最大的即是,在国人眼中被视为珍品的雪獒(即被毛白色的藏獒)在AKC的规则中被视为缺点。 此外,藏獒在此规定中被严格控制其攻击性,攻击性强的藏獒被视为失格,这也于国人传统观念中藏獒的凶悍勇猛大相径庭。 差异的出现其实与阿拉斯加长毛短毛之争(可参见拙文阿拉斯加长毛短毛之争)同出一源,即国人对犬只的要求和AKC制定标准的出发点不同。AKC看重的是犬只的神经性和稳定的遗传性状,而国人更多偏重其实用性和外观。 在收集资料时,看到一个名为espchl的训犬师关于藏獒的一段言论,觉得很有道理,贴出来与大家分享。 目前报纸上,网络上很多文章都神化了原产于中国西藏的大型犬藏獒.藏獒的凶猛程度被提高到了犬类之最的高度.但事实是否如此呢? 很多反映其凶猛的报道都是反映其误咬伤无辜者的情况,这其实只反映其凶残性,只有受控制的攻击力才是可以利用的攻击力,否则只有给主人带来麻烦.      
先撇开受控性不谈,先看看藏獒的格斗能力.如果藏獒的格斗能力最强的话那斗狗应该是用藏獒,而不是用比特,土佐.斗狗是任何品种都可以参加的,这在四川的斗狗场的初期阶段可以看到,有不同的犬种在打比赛.但不论德国牧羊犬还是藏獒,没有犬种能够打败体重只有30公斤左右的比特.比特的持续体力,咬合力,疼痛耐受力是别的犬种不能比拟的.因为它就是为了斗犬专门培养出来的.          
至于可训性,藏獒在工作犬中是比较差的,大家看一下警犬中的犬种就知道了,按数量依此是德国牧羊犬,洛特伟勒和杜宾.德国人在培养工作犬方面确实是为世界做出了卓越的贡献.大家谁看见过有用藏獒做警犬的? 藏獒是一种原始犬种,体质是比较好的.但由于国人没有系统繁殖,目前国内藏獒的遗传特性还没有稳定下来.严格的说是否能称为一种独立犬种还有疑问.大家不要神化藏獒了,很多充其量不过是大的藏狗罢了.畜种培养是有系统性,科学性的,国内在这点上做得不好.应该首先把国内藏獒的遗传特性稳定下来.          
在AKC里面藏獒(TIBET MASTIFF)是工作犬组里的一种独立犬种,但那些都是引进到美国后在美国培养若干代的遗传特性稳定的犬.所以此藏獒非彼藏獒.真希望国内有人能够花几十年时间成立国内藏獒俱乐部,并在国内把国内优秀藏獒的基因能够稳定下来.毕竟这是中国的名犬. 综上所述,喜爱藏獒是可以的,但大家要在充分了解这种动物,并掌握了相当的训练技术之后在考虑饲养这种动物。
 

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